The Andromeda Smudge

See another galaxy with the naked eye

Andromeda Galaxy M31

It’s the smudge to look out for

Milky Way Galaxy Gif.

to see the Andromeda galaxy this winter with the naked eye.

andromeda galaxy m31

The Andromeda Smudge

Seeking Out M31


The Andromeda Galaxy , also known as Messier 31, M31, or NGC 224, is a spiral galaxy approximately 780 kiloparsecs (2.5 million light-years) from Earth, and the
nearest major galaxy to the Milky Way. Its name stems from the area of the sky in which it appears, the constellation of Andromeda.

Andromeda ‘Smudge’ – nebulous smear  – you can see it as Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi saw it.

Around the year 964, the Persian astronomer Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi described the Andromeda Galaxy, in his Book of Fixed Stars as a “nebulous smear”. Star charts of that period labeled it as the Little Cloud.

Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi M31 





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Remember the laws of motion at all times

Reading it, learning it and keeping it by your side.

Newton’s laws of motion are three physical laws that form the basis for classical mechanics. They describe the relationship between the forces acting on a body and its motion due to those forces. They have been expressed in several different ways over nearly three centuries, and can be summarized as follows:

1.First law: The velocity of a body remains constant unless the body is acted upon by an external force.
2.Second law: The acceleration a of a body is parallel and directly proportional to the net force F and inversely proportional to the mass m, i.e., F = ma.
3.Third law: The mutual forces of action and reaction between two bodies are equal, opposite and collinear.

The three laws of motion were first compiled by Sir Isaac Newton in his work Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica, first published on July 5, 1687. Newton used them to explain and investigate the motion of many physical objects and systems. For example, in the third volume of the text, Newton showed that these laws of motion, combined with his law of universal gravitation, explained Kepler’s laws of planetary motion.

Newton’s laws are applied to bodies (objects) which are considered or idealized as a particle, in the sense that the extent of the body is neglected in the evaluation of its motion, i.e., the object is small compared to the distances involved in the analysis, or the deformation and rotation of the body is of no importance in the analysis. Therefore, a planet can be idealized as a particle for analysis of its orbital motion around a star.

In their original form, Newton’s laws of motion are not adequate to characterize the motion of rigid bodies and deformable bodies. Leonard Euler in 1750 introduced a generalization of Newton’s laws of motion for rigid bodies called the Euler’s laws of motion, later applied as well for deformable bodies assumed as a continuum. If a body is represented as an assemblage of discrete particles, each governed by Newton’s laws of motion, then Euler’s laws can be derived from Newton’s laws. Euler’s laws can, however, be taken as axioms describing the laws of motion for extended bodies, independently of any particle structure.

Portrait of Isaac Newton by Godfrey Kneller

Isaac Newton

Newton’s Laws hold only with respect to a certain set of frames of reference called Newtonian or inertial reference frames. Some authors interpret the first law as defining what an inertial reference frame is; from this point of view, the second law only holds when the observation is made from an inertial reference frame, and therefore the first law cannot be proved as a special case of the second. Other authors do treat the first law as a corollary of the second. The explicit concept of an inertial frame of reference was not developed until long after Newton’s death.

In the given interpretation mass, acceleration, momentum, and (most importantly) force are assumed to be externally defined quantities. This is the most common, but not the only interpretation: one can consider the laws to be a definition of these quantities.

At speeds approaching the speed of light the effects of special relativity must be taken into account.


Newton’s law of universal gravitation states that every point mass in the universe attracts every other point mass with a force that is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. (Separately it was shown that large spherically symmetrical masses attract and are attracted as if all their mass were concentrated at their centers.)

This is a general physical law derived from empirical observations by what Newton called induction. It is a part of classical mechanics and was formulated in Newton’s work Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica (“the Principia”), first published on 5 July 1687. (When Newton’s book was presented in 1686 to the Royal Society, Robert Hooke made a claim that Newton had obtained the inverse square law from him .) In modern language, the law states the following:

Every point mass attracts every single other point mass by a force pointing along the line intersecting both points. The force is proportional to the product of the two masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them:

F is the force between the masses,
G is the gravitational constant,
m1 is the first mass,
m2 is the second mass, and
r is the distance between the masses.

Assuming SI units, F is measured in newtons (N), m1 and m2 in kilograms (kg), r in meters (m), and the constant G is approximately equal to 6.674×10-11 N m2 kg-2.The value of the constant G was first accurately determined from the results of the Cavendish experiment conducted by the British scientist Henry Cavendish in 1798, although Cavendish did not himself calculate a numerical value for G.

This experiment was also the first test of Newton’s theory of gravitation between masses in the laboratory. It took place 111 years after the publication of Newton’s Principia and 71 years after Newton’s death, so none of Newton’s calculations could use the value of G; instead he could only calculate a force relative to another force.

Newton’s law of gravitation resembles Coulomb’s law of electrical forces, which is used to calculate the magnitude of electrical force between two charged bodies. Both are inverse-square laws, in which force is inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the bodies. Coulomb’s Law has the product of two charges in place of the product of the masses, and the electrostatic constant in place of the gravitational constant.

Newton’s law has since been superseded by Einstein’s theory of general relativity, but it continues to be used as an excellent approximation of the effects of gravity. Relativity is required only when there is a need for extreme precision, or when dealing with gravitation for extremely massive and dense objects.

Main Source



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Deneb the blue-white super giant


Deneb is the brightest star in the constellation of Cygnus. It is one of the vertices of the asterism known as the Summer Triangle and forms the ‘head’ of the Northern Cross.

It is the 19th brightest star in the night sky, with an apparent magnitude of 1.25. A blue-white supergiant, Deneb is also one of the most luminous stars.

However, its exact distance (and hence luminosity) has been difficult to calculate; it is estimated to be somewhere between 55,000 and 196,000 times as luminous as the Sun.

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Saturn-throwing some shapes


The shapes form in an area of turbulent flow between the two different rotating fluid bodies with dissimilar speeds.

A number of stable vortices of similar size form on the slower (south) side of the fluid boundary and these interact with each other to space themselves out evenly around the perimeter.

The presence of the vortices influences the boundary to move northward where each is present and this gives rise to the polygon effect.

No longer rings.

These are obviously just my little art astronomy efforts here. Even the great Cassini could not take images like this…or could it?


Have a Cassini Swirl


Another one that replaced the rings with chocolate swirls.







If you want to go back to cassini reality.


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Thinking out loud – science more than a body of knowledge.

When to realise we are going to need science to survive our way of thinking!


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Open Cluster

Stars Galore

An open cluster is a group of up to a few thousand stars that were formed from the same giant molecular cloud and have roughly the same age.

More than 1,100 open clusters have been discovered within the Milky Way Galaxy, and many more are thought to exist.

Gravitational Attraction

They are loosely bound by mutual gravitational attraction and become disrupted by close encounters with other clusters and clouds of gas as they orbit the galactic center. This can result in a migration to the main body of the galaxy and a loss of cluster members through internal close encounters.

Globular Clusters

Open clusters generally survive for a few hundred million years, with the most massive ones surviving for a few billion years. In contrast, the more massive globular clusters of stars exert a stronger gravitational attraction on their members, and can survive for longer.

Open clusters have been found only in spiral and irregular galaxies, in which active star formation is occurring.



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If You Say Betelgeuse Thrice

Will It Go Supernova

Super Negative Betelgeuse Massive Star


Beetle Star In The Astronomy News

Amateur Astronomer’s Always Have Something To Say About Orion

me cc in orion

With my buddy Orion




Betelgeuse is one of the largest stars currently known — with a radius around 1400 times larger than the Sun’s in the millimeter continuum. About 600 light-years away in the constellation of Orion (The Hunter), the red supergiant burns brightly, causing it to have only a short life expectancy.

The star is just about eight million years old, but is already on the verge of becoming a supernova.


When that happens, the resulting explosion will be visible from Earth, even in broad daylight.


The Betlegeuse Orion Files

Back Soon In The Sky Near You 

Orion Hunter Mythology Story 


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weakend week-end news in middle late june

HST image of Tadpole Galaxy

Huge Tadpole.

gif brass eye c4 satire

This Is The NEWS

The headlines tonight:
Fist headed man destroys church.

Evolution and Irony Will Not Fuse

    • Portillo’s teeth removed to boost pound.
    • Exploded cardinal preaches sermon from fish tank.
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Ain’t No Revolution Election or Wisdom

Hubble Cat Wisdom

It all seems very easy, this revolution game
But when you start to really play things won’t be quite the same.

Your intellectual theories on how it’s going to be
Don’t seem to take into account the true reality
Cos the truth of what you’re saying, as you sit there sipping beer
Is pain and death and suffering, but of course you wouldn’t care


You’re far too much of a man for that, if Mao did it so can you
What’s the freedom of us all against the suffering of the few?
That’s the kind of self-deception that killed ten million jews
Just the same false logic that all power-mongers use

Vive Le France Revolution

We don’t do revolution anymore.

So don’t think you can fool me with your political tricks
Political right, political left, you can keep your politics
Government is government and all government is force
Left or right, right or left, it takes the same old course
Oppression and restriction, regulation, rule and law
The seizure of that power is all your revolution’s for
You romanticise your heroes, quote from Marx and Mao
Well their ideas of freedom are just oppression now


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The Beautiful Victoria

Victoria is an impact crater on Mars located at 2.05°S, 5.50°W in the Meridiani Planum extraterrestrial plain, lying situated within the Margaritifer Sinus quadrangle (MC-19) region of the planet Mars.

Image of Victoria Crater on Mars

Victoria Crater


This crater was first visited by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity. It is roughly 730 metres wide, nearly eight times the size of the crater Endurance, visited by Opportunity from sols 951 to 1630.

It is informally named after Victoria – one of the five ships of Ferdinand Magellan and the first ship to circumnavigate the globe – and formally named after Victoria, Seychelles. Along the edges of the crater are many outcrops within recessed alcoves and promontories, named for bays and capes that Magellan discovered.




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We are in the milky way

Whatever with age of Earth says Galaxy 

Globular clusters are among the oldest objects in the Milky Way Galaxy, which thus set a lower limit on the age of the galaxy. Age estimates of the oldest of these clusters gives a best fit estimate of 12.6 billion years, and a 95% confidence upper limit of 16 billion years.


Galaxy does not suffer from crows feet in its selfie images ever.

The Milky Way began as one or several small overdensities in the mass distribution in the Universe shortly after the Big Bang. Some of these overdensities were the seeds of globular clusters in which the oldest remaining stars in what is now the Milky Way formed. These stars and clusters now comprise the stellar halo of the Galaxy.

Choose Dates Carefully 

When to be psychic and or telepathic – and still get it wrong.



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eye see iris nebula

In the constellation Cepheus

The Iris Nebula, also NGC 7023 and Caldwell 4, is a bright reflection nebula and Caldwell object in the constellation Cepheus. NGC 7023 is actually the cluster within the nebula, LBN 487, and the nebula is lit by a magnitude +7 star, SAO 19158.

It shines at magnitude +6.8. It is located near the Mira-type variable star T Cephei, and near the bright magnitude +3.23 variable star Beta Cephei (Alphirk). It lies 1,300 light-years away and is six light-years across.

The Iris Nebula, also NGC 7023 and Caldwell 4, is a bright reflection nebula and Caldwell object in the constellation Cepheus.

NGC Stellarium


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Four States of Matter

States (or phases)

Matter commonly exists in four states (or phases): solid, liquid and gas, and plasma. However, advances in experimental techniques have revealed other previously theoretical phases, such as Bose–Einstein condensates and fermionic condensates. A focus on an elementary-particle view of matter also leads to new phases of matter, such as the quark–gluon plasma.

For much of the history of the natural sciences people have contemplated the exact nature of matter. The idea that matter was built of discrete building blocks, the so-called particulate theory of matter, was first put forward by the Greek philosophers Leucippus (~490 BC) and Democritus (~470–380 BC).

Albert Einstein showed that ultimately all matter is capable of being converted to energy (known as mass-energy equivalence) by the famous formula E = mc2, where E is the energy of a piece of matter of mass m, times c2 the speed of light squared.

Custodite interrogans ænigmatibus.

Custodite interrogans ænigmatibus.

As the speed of light is 299,792,458 metres per second (186,282 mi/s), a relatively small amount of matter may be converted to a large amount of energy. An example is that positrons and electrons (matter) may transform into photons (non-matter). However, although matter may be created or destroyed in such processes, neither the quantity of mass or energy change during the process.

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anarchy democracy in the uk

1977 or 2016 reached this pathetic paradox

I’ll save this part of my history for the after-life. A title heading in waiting.

The New Wave of Politics –  General Election 2017





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Shooting Stars Earth Day

sharing science and free thinking for all

Science March

March For Science 2017

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Long necked search of madagascar reveals more

Trachelophorus giraffa – wonderous weevil

The giraffe weevil is a weevil endemic to Madagascar. It derives its name from an extended neck much like that of the common giraffe. The giraffe weevil is sexually dimorphic, with the neck of the male typically being 2 to 3 times the length of that of the female.

Madagascar – Species – Adaptation

Most of the body is black with distinctive red elytra covering the flying wings. The total body length of the males is just under an inch (2.5 cm), among the longest for any attelabid species. The extended neck is an adaptation that assists in nest building and fighting.

When it comes time to breed, the mother-to-be will roll and secure a leaf of the host plant, Dichaetanthera cordifolia and Dichaetanthera arborea (a small tree in the family Melastomataceae), and then lay a single egg within the tube. She will then snip the roll from the remaining leaf in preparation of the egg hatching.


View my Flipboard Magazine – The Widest Spectrum




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April Skies

Are You New To Astronomy?

Stargazing Live may have got you interested to start looking further but where to start?

Australian National University Welcomes Stargazing Live

You may find the following websites useful.

Stargazing Live





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Watching a Rocket Launch

Spaceflight Day With Space Com

Orbital ATK’s robotic Cygnus cargo spacecraft is scheduled to launch toward the International Space Station (ISS) Tuesday atop a United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket at 11:11 a.m. EDT (1511 GMT) from Florida’s Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. You can watch it live here at, courtesy of NASA TV, or directly at the space agency’s YouTube channel.

Cygnus has flown a number of such resupply runs in the past, but this liftoff will be special, from a viewer’s perspective at least: You’ll be able to get a pad’s-eye view, in 360 degrees.

“To view in 360, use a mouse or move a personal device to look up and down, back and forth, for a 360-degree view around Space Launch Complex-41 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida,” NASA officials wrote in a statement. “Those who own virtual reality headsets will be able to look around and experience the view as if they were actually standing on the launch pad.”

The Cygnus is packed with more than 7,600 lbs. (3,450 kilograms) of scientific gear, hardware and supplies for the ISS crew — so much cargo that the mission will employ an Atlas V rather than Orbital’s own Antares booster, which is not quite as powerful. (An Antares is slated to loft the next Cygnus mission, which will lift off this summer.)

Go to the space com website here to watch.



I’m an astronaut, honestly I am. 



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cassini was a visitor to saturn

Saturn Kronos 2017

Saturn Saturday April 2017

How Long Is A Day On Saturn?

The Making of the Grand Finale

Only a few months are left for Cassini to explore the rings of Saturn.


The Grand Finale – Cassini



Who Is Cassini?


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Conspiracy minerals have been discovered – this is the news

British scientists exploring an underwater mountain in the Atlantic Ocean have discovered a treasure trove of rare minerals.





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Saturday Star Planet Moon

Jupiter ‘chasing’ the moon early Sunday morning.

Fantastic naked eye view of Spica, Jupiter and the Moon. I don’t do astro-photography, this is a screenshot from stellarium.

Jupiter was close to the Moon, it was all happening in Virgo this evening.

a screenshot from Stellarium.

The stellarium view of night sky now.







April spring’s to life on the second weekend. Saturday saw some bats back, so a good night of natural earth viewing for early Spring tonight and this morning. The dawn chorus was also on full volume.





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The Imp’s of Darkness

Iguana Marine

The marine iguana is an iguana found only on the Galápagos Islands that has the ability, unique among modern lizards, to forage in the sea, making it a marine reptile. The iguana can dive over 9 m (30 ft) into the water.

It has spread to all the islands in the archipelago, and is sometimes called the Galápagos marine iguana. It mainly lives on the rocky Galápagos shore to warm from the comparatively cold water, but can also be spotted in marshes and mangrove beaches.

Galapagos Marine Iguana

Marine iguanas are medium-sized lizards (200–340 mm (7.9–13.4 in), adult snout–vent length) and are unique as they are marine reptiles due to their foraging on inter-
and subtidal algae only. These iguanas forage exclusively in the cold sea, which leads them to behavioral adaptations for thermoregulation.

On his visit to the islands, despite making extensive observations on the creatures, Charles Darwin was revolted by the animals’ appearance, writing:
The black Lava rocks on the beach are frequented by large (2–3 ft [0.6–0.9 m]), disgusting clumsy Lizards. They are as black as the porous rocks over which they crawl
& seek their prey from the Sea. I call them ‘imps of darkness’. They assuredly well-become the land they inhabit.


Researchers theorize that land iguanas and marine iguanas evolved from a common ancestor since arriving on the islands from South America, presumably by rafting.

The marine iguana diverged from the land iguana some 8 million years ago, which is older than any of the extant Galapagos islands. It is therefore thought that the ancestral species inhabited parts of the volcanic archipelago that are now submerged.

The two species remain mutually fertile in spite of being assigned to distinct
genera, and they occasionally hybridize where their ranges overlap.


Although the marine iguana resembles a lizard, it has developed several adaptations that set it apart. These include blunt noses for efficiently grazing seaweed, powerful limbs and claws for climbing and holding onto rocks, and laterally flattened tails for improved swimming.

Compared to the land iguana its limb bones, especially those from the front limbs, have become more heavy and compact (osteosclerosis), providing ballast to help with diving.
The marine iguana has no evolved defences against introduced predators. These include rats, which tend to feed on the eggs, cats, which can feed on juveniles, and dogs
which may threaten adults.

Amblyrhynchus cristatus is not always black; the young have a lighter coloured dorsal stripe, and some adult specimens are grey, and adult males vary in colour with
the season. Dark tones allow the lizards to rapidly absorb heat to minimize the period of lethargy after emerging from the water. The marine iguana lacks agility on
land but is a graceful swimmer. Its laterally flattened tail and spiky dorsal fin aid in propulsion, while its long, sharp claws allow it to hold onto rocks in strong


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Norma and Lupus

Southern Hemisphere Constellations

Norma is a small constellation in the Southern Celestial Hemisphere between Scorpius and Centaurus, one of twelve drawn up in the 18th century by French astronomer Nicolas Louis de Lacaille and one of several depicting scientific instruments.

Its name is Latin for normal, referring to a right angle, and is variously considered to represent a rule, a carpenter’s square, a set square or a level. It remains one of the 88 modern constellations. 

sky map showing constellations of Lupus and Norma

Lupus. Norma is to the south.


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Back in the night sky tele soon

Stargazing Live – from Australia

The BBC astronomy show, Stargazing Live, is back for three nights at the end of March. Happy days – or should that be nights!

Stargazing LIVE is back, and once again the nation will join Professor Brian Cox and Dara O Briain to look at the skies, taking in the wonders of the Universe.

Professor Brian Cox tell’s you when..




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saucepan of star feast

Constellation Ursa Major

Naked Eye Dark Sky Ursa Major

Cooking Top Stars of The Saucepan

The most reliable of the Northern Hemisphere to see – the Plough is likely the first constellation you recognize when you first ‘Look up’.  


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Cassini Saturn Continues

Searching Planet Saturn


Satellite Cassini-Huygens 

The Cassini Huygens Information

The Journey – The Spacecraft

Saturn F-Ring


Go behind the scenes

Amateur Images Saturn Cassini 

The Cassini Mission Timeline 

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night sky super star

Betelgeuse in Orion

Making the most of seeing the magnificent Orion Constellation in the last week. The most distinctive and interesting of all the constellations in the Northern Hemisphere.

Starting with Betelgeuse (or beetlejuice if you prefer! )

Always new things being discovered – Result for Betelgeuse then!

Only last month, the speed of the star has been questioned – Post on Phys Site, December 2016.


In the Super Star Constellation – Orion.

I’m always so pleased to see it back in the sky!

Orion The Hunter


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Filth and Reality Forty Years On


Halloween weekend was.


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Our Local Bubble

Close Stars To The Solar System

The Orion–Eridanus Superbubble, or Eridanus Soft X-ray Enhancement is a superbubble located west of the Orion Nebula. The region is formed from overlapping supernova remnants that may be associated with the Orion OB1 stellar association; the bubble is approximately 1200 ly across. It is the nearest superbubble to the Local Bubble containing the Sun, with the respective shock fronts being about 500 ly apart.

Diagram of Orion Eridanus Bubble

Bubble Orion Eridanus

The Local Bubble is a cavity in the interstellar medium (ISM) in the Orion Arm of the Milky Way. It contains, among others, the Local Interstellar Cloud and the G-cloud. (The Local Interstellar Cloud contains our Solar System.) It is at least 300 light years across and has a neutral-hydrogen density of about 0.05 atoms/cm3, or approximately one tenth of the average for the ISM in the Milky Way (0.5 atoms/cm3), and one sixth that of the Local Interstellar Cloud (0.3 atoms/cm3). The hot diffuse gas in the Local Bubble emits X-rays.

The very sparse, hot gas of the Local Bubble is the result of supernovae that exploded within the past ten to twenty million years. It was once thought that the most likely candidate for the remains of this supernova was Geminga (“Gemini gamma-ray source”), a pulsar in the constellation Gemini. More recently, however, it has been suggested that multiple supernovae in subgroup B1 of the Pleiades moving group were more likely responsible becoming a remnant supershell.


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Near To Orion Is Enough

So I Will Feature the Eridanus Constellation

Eridanus is a constellation in the southern hemisphere. It is represented as a river. It was one of the 48 constellations listed by the 2nd century astronomer Ptolemy, and it remains one of the 88 modern constellations. It is the sixth largest of the modern constellations. The same name was later taken as a Latin name for the real Po River and also for the name of a minor river in Athens.

Eridanus contains the galaxies NGC 1232, NGC 1234, NGC 1291 and NGC 1300, a grand design barred spiral galaxy.

Just Part Of Orion & I

constellation fascination


The night sky is getting darker earlier in the evening right now so it’s time to see the constellations of the northern hemisphere in good ‘view’.

See other resources for those by viewing further on as I am not looking through a telescope, just looking up and seeing clouds!




Tree in Centaurus non-specified!






This Space Probe

Taken At The Milky Way Drive By 

Realistic take on the solar system subject.

A relief from scary fekking clowns take a lookup above instead for some real inspiration.


Autumn Night Sky

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The Night Sky Unicorn

Monoceros is nothing that interesting to look at with the naked eye as it contains no really bright stars. Those stars are: Alpha Monocerotis which has a visual magnitude of 3.93, slightly brighter than Gamma Monocerotis at 3.98.

This is one for the telescope owning astronomer as it does have interesting objects to see.

Deep-sky objects

Monoceros contains many clusters and nebulae, most notable among them:

  • M50, an open cluster
  • The Rosette Nebula (NGC 2237, 2238, 2239, and 2246) is a diffuse nebula in Monoceros. It has an overall magnitude of 6.0 and is 4900 light-years from Earth. The Rosette Nebula, over 100 light-years in diameter, has an associated star cluster and possesses many Bok globules in its dark areas. It was independently discovered in the 1880s by Lewis Swift (early 1880s) and Edward Emerson Barnard (1883) as they hunted for comets.
  • The Christmas Tree Cluster (NGC 2264) is another open cluster in Monoceros. Named for its resemblance to a Christmas tree, it is fairly bright at an overall magnitude of 3.9; it is 2400 light-years from Earth. The variable star S Monocerotis represents the tree’s trunk, while the variable star V429 Monocerotis represents its top.
  • The Cone Nebula (NGC 2264), associated with the Christmas Tree Cluster, is a very dim nebula that contains a dark conic structure. It appears clearly in photographs, but is very elusive in a telescope. The nebula contains several Herbig-Haro objects, which are small irregularly variable nebulae. They are associated with protostars.
  • NGC 2254 is an open cluster with an overall magnitude of 9.7, 7100 light-years from Earth. It is a Shapley class f and Trumpler class I 2 p cluster, meaning that it appears to be a fairly rich cluster overall, though it has fewer than 50 stars. It appears distinct from the background star field and is very concentrated at its center; its stars range moderately in brightness.
  • Hubble’s Variable Nebula (NGC 2261) is a nebula with an approximate magnitude of 10, 2500 light-years from Earth. Though it is named for Edwin Hubble, it was discovered in 1783 by William Herschel. Hubble’s Variable Nebula is illuminated by R Monocerotis, a young variable star embedded in the nebula; the star’s unique interaction with the material in the nebula makes it both an emission nebula and a reflection nebula. One hypothesis regarding their interaction is that the nebula and its illuminating star are a very early stage planetary system.



More Information:


Constellation Guide

Universe Today




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moons solar system


Getting to know the Satellites 

The Solar System’s planets and officially recognised dwarf planets are known to be orbited by 182 natural satellites, or moons. 19 moons in the Solar System are large enough to be gravitationally rounded, and thus would be considered planets or dwarf planets if they were in direct orbit around the Sun.

Moons are classed in two separate categories according to their orbits: regular moons, which have prograde orbits (they orbit in the direction of their planets’ rotation) and lie close to the plane of their equators, and irregular moons, whose orbits can be pro- or retrograde(against the direction of their planets’ rotation) and often lie at extreme angles to their planets’ equators. Irregular moons are probably minor planets that have been captured from surrounding space. Most irregular moons are less than 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) in diameter.

From List of Satellites 



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Othering in September

Autumn is Colouring Red


Autumn colour theme - this season's in thing.

Autumn colour theme – this season’s in thing.

Ginger Natured Autumn

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I should be looking at Andromeda

Bad light for galaxy view

It just isn’t dark enough. On the best of a bad lot, and in August – the sky right now is almost cloud free. Light pollution is the biggest culprit. I can see the Pegasus constellation which means I should be able to make out the Andromeda galaxy with just my naked eye.

If I had binoculars or a telescope I would find it quite easily but that’s not the point. It’s fantastic to be able to see another galaxy by looking up at the night sky if you are in a ‘good’ dark place.


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Big Up Bats UK

Find out more about our brilliant UK insect hunters.

Getting to know our night creatures and how we can help and support the ‘caped crusaders’ of the night sky – the brilliant bats. The best place for information on bats in the UK is The Bat Conservation Trust, it has absolutely everything you need to know and you don’t have to be a member in order to see the content.


Bat Fact

Bats are not blind; in fact they can see almost as well as humans. But to fly around and hunt for insects in the dark, they use a remarkable high frequency system called echolocation.

Echolocation works in a similar way to sonar. Bats make calls as they fly and listen to the returning echoes to build up a sonic map of their surroundings. The bat can tell how far away something is by how long it takes the sounds to return to them.





Echo Location: A post I did on my other blog.

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Ban Slug Pellets

Continuing my UK Wildlife theme as this month is quiet for me in astronomy!


As if hedgehogs don’t have enough problems with habitat loss – they are still under the threat of death due to the continued use of slug pellets.


UK Hedgehog.

After helping a hedgehog last week, my partner then found out it had died due to poisoning. Slug pellets being the culprit.

In a well maintained garden you should not need slug pellets. Personally, I think they should be banned. That hedgehog suffered an agonising death that was all so unnecessary.

We would like to thank The Cuan Rescue Center for all their work in helping and rescuing our UK Wildlife.

What To Do If You Find An Injured Hedgehog

Hedgehog Street Top Tips

There is currentley a petition to stop the decline of Hedgehogs in the UK. Click on the link below to sign it.

Give the hedgehog better legal protection in order to reverse its decline.

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August Astronomy Remains Quiet

Not Enough Dark Sky

Constellations are hard to find with only a short time of dark sky. The Milky Way is a great view at this time, if you know where to look. I like to see it where I live because the view is usually quite bad with light pollution.

milky way map

Milky Way – Naked Eye Viewed



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Just say jupiter

Juno Gif Appears

Jupiter grs the great red spot – Over 400 years old…


Main Moons Jupiter

Moons Jupiter





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Another World Another Planet

Finding That Elusive One

Following the discovery of the planet Neptune in 1846, there was considerable speculation that another planet might exist beyond its orbit.

The search began in the mid-19th century and culminated at the start of the 20th with Percival Lowell’s quest for Planet X. Lowell proposed the Planet X hypothesis to explain apparent discrepancies in the orbits of the giant planets, particularly Uranus and Neptune, speculating that the gravity of a large unseen ninth planet could have perturbed Uranus enough to account for the irregularities.

Clyde Tombaugh’s discovery of Pluto in 1930 appeared to validate Lowell’s hypothesis, and Pluto was officially named the ninth planet. In 1978, Pluto was conclusively determined to be too small for its gravity to affect the giant planets, resulting in a brief search for a tenth planet.

The search was largely abandoned in the early 1990s, when a study of measurements made by the Voyager 2 spacecraft found that the irregularities observed in Uranus’s orbit were due to a slight overestimation of Neptune’s mass.

After 1992, the discovery of numerous small icy objects with similar or even wider orbits than Pluto led to a debate over whether Pluto should remain a planet, or whether it and its neighbours should, like the
asteroids, be given their own separate classification.

Although a number of the larger members of this group were initially described as planets, in 2006 the International Astronomical Union reclassified Pluto and its largest neighbours as dwarf planets, leaving Neptune the farthest known planet in the Solar System.

See more from above text

Diagram - Artists Impression

Suspected OrbitPointing To Planet X


Artist's Impression of TNO's


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Apatheism – Is it a practical and misleading deity doubt monster?

Gif gallery galaxy

Dark Sky Eye


Apatheism also known as pragmatic atheism or practical atheism, is acting with apathy or disregard toward belief or disbelief in a deity or deities (a god or gods) due to the lack of reason, motivation, or will to express interest in theism.

An apatheist is someone who is not interested in accepting or denying any claims that gods exist or do not exist. An apatheist lives as if there are no gods and explains natural phenomena without reference to any deities. The existence of gods is not rejected, but may be designated unnecessary or useless; gods neither provide purpose to life, nor influence everyday life, according to this view.

In other words, apatheists consider the question of the existence of gods as neither meaningful nor relevant to their lives. Some apatheists hold that if it were possible to prove that God does or does not exist, their behavior would not change.


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These resources of earth

Not exclusive to the human race



‘whatever your politics and beliefs – we can’t argue with the obvious. We have exploited our planet and taken its resources for granted.’


The Great Planet Earth of Life

Unique planet has intelligent life.

We found the light.



We have earth.

We have earth.


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usual saturday then

Saturday is – quiet night in..

No Dead End

Look again..and again. No dead end exists.

Cloudy non naked eye dark sky tonight.






Our Old Dude

Our Old Dude – Ziggy


Saturday Quiet In



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Life is in a vent

Yeah, ok. Bad title! A good sort of idea for this post though. About our very own planet. Just a bit fascinated with Hydrothermal Vent’s at the moment.

Keep Asking The Difficult Questions

Custodite interrogans ænigmatibus.

Custodite interrogans ænigmatibus.


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I saw the corpus clock strike ahead

It was about time too!

my effort of an image of the corpus clock.

My own little photo of the Corpus Clock.

Because I’d read about it. Though I cannot explain it, I found some where, some one, that can…

It’s the Corpus Time Eater. Blink and you will miss it.

The Mechanics of the clock…

The Corpus Clock is a product of traditional mechanical clockmaking. It features the world’s largest grasshopper escapement, a low-friction mechanism for converting
pendulum motion into rotational motion while at the same time giving back to the pendulum the energy needed to maintain its swing.

The grasshopper escapement was an invention of the renowned eighteenth-century clockmaker John Harrison, and Taylor intended the Corpus Clock to be a homage to Harrison’s work.

Since “no one knows how a grasshopper escapement works”, Taylor “decided to turn the clock inside out” so that the escapement, and the escape wheel it turns, would be his clock’s defining feature.



Time going haywired

“The gold eyelids travel across the eye and disappear again in an instant; if you are not watching carefully you will not even notice…

Sometimes you will even see two blinks in quick succession. The Blink is performed by a hidden spring drive, controlled in the best tradition of seventeenth century clockmakers of London. The spring is coiled up inside a housing that can be seen mounted on the large gearwheel visibly protruding from the bottom of the mechanism. As the huge pendulum below the Clock rocks the Chronophage as he steps round the great escapewheel, each backward and forward movement is used by sprag clutches to wind up the drive spring. A position step prevents the spring from being overwound yet allows the spring to be ready at an instant to drive the Blink. The mechanism is released by a countwheel with semi random spacing so the Blink takes place at any position in the to- and fro- motion of the pendulum. A further countwheel mechanism chooses a single or a double blink whilst the air damper at the top of the gear train slows the action to a realistic pace.”

Main Source of this content is better seen here!




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Wednesday Woo #11: Wishful Thinking — An Atheist In Iowa

““Thoughts become things….thoughts become things,” is parroted over and over again, washing over the world’s populace as waves of stupid provoked by a raging storm of charlatans and self-help gurus who decided to enrich themselves by plagiarizing the emerald tablet.”

via Wednesday Woo #11: Wishful Thinking — An Atheist In Iowa

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Sagitta has the arrow

Small Northern Hemisphere Constellation

Finding the stars with the naked eye – astronomy starts by looking up at the sky without any optical prejudice.

Sagitta is a dim but distinctive constellation in the northern sky. Its name is Latin for “arrow”, and it should not be confused with the larger constellation Sagittarius, the archer. Although Sagitta is an ancient constellation, it has no star brighter than 3rd magnitude and has the third-smallest area of all constellations (only Equuleus and Crux are smaller). It was included among the 48 constellations listed by the 2nd century astronomer Ptolemy, and it remains one of the 88 modern constellations defined by the International Astronomical Union. Located to the north of the equator, Sagitta can be seen from every location on Earth except within the Antarctic circle.


gif brass eye c4 satire

Still looking for constellations in the summer time night sky. This is about Sagitta not Sagittarius.

MilyWay GIF

Sagitta is here – Somewhere

Visit the Constellation Guide to see more about constellations and the night sky.



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